domingo, 22 de noviembre de 2009

Hacia una reforma política moderada



Por Roberto Follari.

La democracia no es simplemente el sistema republicano de gobierno. Como Chantal Mouffe -una reconocida filósofa de lo político- ha señalado, la democracia antecede en muchos siglos a la noción republicana de gobierno, deudora del siglo XVIII. De la democracia se habla desde los griegos, varios siglos antes de Cristo. Se puede pensar, entonces, que lo democrático pueda encarnarse en modalidades diferentes a la republicana, pues ella es sólo una entre otras formas posibles; y, por cierto, cabe advertir las enormes limitaciones democráticas de esa modalidad republicana tan cara, por ej., al radicalismo como sector político nacional.

Empecemos por allí, entonces. El chavismo venezolano, considerablemente vituperado por la vulgata de la opinión argentina, ha mejorado todos los standards sociales de ese país: ocupación, alfabetismo, salud, niveles de educación, índices de pobreza (ello, según el nada chavista diario "El Mercurio", de Chile). Eso también es democracia. Acompañado del hecho nada menor de que en votaciones limpias, Chávez ha ganado nada menos que 14 elecciones de 15 en que postuló.

Sin embargo, para los criterios republicanistas habituales, se trataría de un régimen escasamente democrático: pues quienes igualan la idea de democracia con la de las instituciones del pluralismo legislativo, rechazan un liderazgo fuerte como el de Chávez, o una fuerte presencia del Estado en la regulación económica.
Contra ese criterio, en verdad debiera interesar más una reforma democrática que una republicana. Una reforma que se ocupe de mejorar la participación directa de la población, y no sólo de perfeccionar los derechos cívico-ciudadanos relativos al voto y la representación. Pues, bien se sabe, los representantes, las más de las veces se representan sólo a sí mismos; y no por mala fe -aunque algunas veces la haya-, sino por imposibilidad estructural. Es imposible, en estricto sentido, re-presentar los intereses de otros. Siempre se lo hace con sesgos y distancias en relación con lo que se pretende representar, cuando no se está directamente en una vereda lejana, y hasta -en algún caso- opuesta. En fin, toda la filosofía de autores brillantes como Foucault y Derrida, ha sido un ajuste de cuentas con la (en el fondo, metafísica) noción de representación.

Desde este punto de vista, sería interesante que pudiera profundizarse en una Reforma política que incluyera revocatoria de mandatos -como sucede en Venezuela-, o formas de decisión popular vinculante, como consultas, referendos, etc. No hemos sabido de que ello se incluya en la reforma promovida desde el gobierno; no faltará quien critique esa falta, pero es obvio que si estuvieran presentes estas opciones, se tildaría al proyecto de populista y de chavista. Lo cual, para la ultraoposición que hoy hace del país un permanente "Apocalypsis now", resultaría base de toda clase de adjetivos poco edificantes -tipo De Narváez o Reutemann-, o de pronósticos catastrofistas y escatológicos tipo Carrió.

Quedan, entonces, objetivos menos audaces. Por ejemplo, fortalecer ese referido vínculo entre los partidos y la población; el cual, como ya dijimos, es fallido necesariamente, pero que sin dudas ha ofrecido -en alguna época- mejores perspectivas que las actuales. Es decir: que nunca será perfecto, pero que actualmente es demasiado imperfecto.

En ese sentido, la idea de elecciones primarias que se ha propuesto parece interesante. Por supuesto, por sí sola no puede resolver los déficits de representación; pero ayudará a consolidar por pasos graduales los procesos de elección de candidatos, lo cual puede contribuir a una mayor presencia de la población en relación con las organizaciones políticas.

También parece plausible la idea de limitar la presencia de partidos demasiado pequeños. Salvando la posibilidad de partidos regionales o provinciales, se requiere que haya -respecto de cada unidad de análisis electoral: Nación, provincias, departamentos- un porcentaje mínimo que cubrir para que un partido sea aceptado como tal. Es necesario que las minorías estén presentes electoralmente, pero sólo si son minorías relevantes. Las minorías poco significativas impiden que la votación pueda concentrarse en opciones menos diversificadas, y por ello, que aparezcan más claras al electorado. Es imposible votar con 200 boletas, como ocurrió en alguna de nuestras provincias.

Alguna forma de la "rendición de cuentas" de los políticos que resulten elegidos, debiera establecerse (informes públicos de actividad, por ej.). Sería importante transparentar lo más posible la toma de distancia de los políticos elegidos (legisladores y gobernantes), con los grandes empresarios. En este sentido, resulta interesante que la mitad del apoyo financiero desde el Estado a las campañas electorales, se lo dé por igual a todos los partidos. Es una forma de achicar el privilegio de que hoy gozan los más grandes.

En fin, habrá mucho por discutir. Personalmente, no me fío demasiado de una reforma política, cualquiera que sea; las únicas muy importantes son fruto de una revolución, o al menos de una nueva Constituyente, como ha ocurrido en Ecuador o en Bolivia. Pero en Argentina, la timorata clase media atada a los criterios conservadores agromediáticos, apenas permite promover algunos cambios menores. Como diría Freud, la derecha atada al statu quo oposicionista sólo tolera cambios cosméticos, donde los remedios debieran ser quirúrgicos. ¿O, acaso hay alguien de la oposición radical/conservadora que, en estos días de ataques unilaterales y reaccionarios a los movimientos sociales, esté dispuesto a ceder parte de la representación política a los mismos, o a considerar legítima su posibilidad de acceso a fondos públicos?

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